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Landschaft Art - Landschaft, the German word for area, has come to be understood as both a physical territory and the customs and cultures of that land. During the Northern Renaissance, landschaft represented the "expression of community and place identity...at a time when the medieval ascetic ideal was being replaced by the ideal of the active, engaged citizen" (Olwig 632). Landschaft art developed in Northern Europe during the sixteenth century, and is characterized by its depiction of both the natural landscape and the people of rural and urban settings. A notable landschaft painter was Pieter Brueghel (1525-1569) whose genre scenes integrate people, their traditions, and their environment. Beyond Northern Europe, some English landscape painters adopted and altered principles of landschaft art, while the Italianate landscape tradition distinguished itself by emphasizing the geometry rather than customs of a land, despite a "superficial resemblence" to Northern landschaft painting (Olwig 637). 
Recovering the Substantive Nature of Landscape by Kenneth R. Olwig
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